The Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) is one of seven research arms within the National Science Foundation. Its mission is to support research in the atmospheric, earth, and ocean sciences. As the principal source of federal funding for university-based fundamental research in the geosciences, GEO addresses the nation's need to understand, predict, and respond to environmental events and changes to use Earth's resources wisely. Basic research in the geosciences advances scientific knowledge of Earth's environment, including resources such as water, energy, minerals, and biological diversity. GEO-supported research also advances our ability to predict natural phenomena of economic and human significance, such as climate changes, weather, earthquakes, fish-stock fluctuations, and disruptive events in the solar-terrestrial environment.